Weight-loss surgery

Weight loss or bariatric surgery helps to lose weight and lowers the risk of medical problems which are linked to obesity. This surgery is used to control obesity in two ways –
Restriction: Bariatric surgery is performed to limit the quantity of food which the stomach can contain. This leads to controlling the amount of calories a person can consume.
Malabsorption: Surgery is done to shorten/bypass the part of small intestine which helps the body to cut down on the nutrients and calories it can absorb.
These surgeries are done when to help in losing weight when weight or overweight becomes a health issue. Some common bariatric surgeries are:

Roun-en-Y gastric bypass

In this type of weight-loss surgery, the surgeon will create small pouch at the top part of the stomach. This pouch is the part which receives food, thus limiting the amount that a person can eat/drink at a time.
The surgeon then cuts the small intestine a tiny distance below the main part of the stomach, and connected to the smaller, new pouch. The bigger part of the stomach makes digestive juices and these juices flow to small intestine through another connection. Fewer nutrients are absorbed as food bypasses a part of the small intestine.


Sleeve gastrectomy

In this weight-loss surgery, the surgeon completely removes a portion of the stomach. The remaining stomach part is then shaped to form a kind of tube-like shape/structure. The new smaller stomach holds lesser food quantity which makes the person eat less. Due to the smaller stomach, a lesser amount of ghrelin, or the appetite regulating hormone is produced, which might reduce the desire for food. Sleeve gastrectomy does not have any effect on the small intestines’ capacity to absorb nutrients and calories.


Laparoscopic adjustable gastric binding

In this process, a band which is attached to one inflatable balloon is placed inside the upper portion of the stomach and fixed there. This then creates a smaller stomach or pouch above the band which is linked with the other part of the stomach with a narrow hole/opening.
A tube is used to connect the port placed under the abdomen’s skin, to the band. Fluid is injected or removed to inflate or deflate the balloon which adjusts the band’s size. Gastric bands restrict the quantity of food which the stomach can hold but the absorption of nutrients and calories is not reduced.


Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch

This bariatric surgery is similar to sleeve gastrecnomy, as the surgeon separates a large portion of stomach. The valve or opening which releases the food to small intestine is retained as is the first portions of small intestine known as duodenum.
Then the surgeon closes the middle part of the intestine, and attaches the last portion to the duodenum. This is called duodenal switch. The separated part of small intestine is not removed from the body, but it is reattached to small intestine, which allows the pancreatic and bile juices to flow into it. This is called the biliopancreatic diversion.
These two procedures together control the amount of food consumed as well as the calories consumed by the body. This leads to weight loss.