Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with various kinds of heart conditions and disorders. In some cases, it can also include certain parts of the circular system as well. This branch of medicines deals with the treatment and diagnosis of valvular heart diseases, heart failure and defects and even coronary artery diseases.

Surgery for coronary artery disease using off-pump technique

Heart Transplant

Patients that are diagnosed with severe Coronary Artery Disease or are on the verge of a heart failure, the heart transplant is recommended. With the help of a surgical procedure, the medical expert will replace the damaged with heart with a new one. Most of the times, the heart donor will be a person who has recently passed away or is brain dead. Before the implantation of the new heart, a series of tests and trials will be done using the donor’s tissue or blood. This helps the medical team to find an ideal match for the patient so that the body accepts the new heart.
Duration of the procedure – There is no fixed duration for the surgery
Numbers of days for hospitalization – The hospital stay depends on how well the body accepts the new heart. The medical team will also keep a watch on the patient to ensure that there no complications even after the body has accepted the new heart.

Stent angioplasty


With the help of Fluoroscopy, Angiography is recommended in case the doctor or a medical expert feels that there is some kind of blockage in the Peripheral arteries or Coronary. Through this diagnostic test, the medical expert will be able to determine how many blockages are there and what kind of treatment would be needed.
Duration of the procedure – This procedure is done under local anesthesia and generally takes around 10 -15 minutes.

Implanted artificial heart valve in mitral position

Heart Valve Replacement

Also known as Open heart surgery, this surgical procedure is used when there is any damage to any or multiple or all the heart valves. The doctor will decide if the heart valves have to be replaced or repaired based on your medical condition, the updated health records, your age and the overall condition of your heart valve. There are two kinds of Heart Valve Surgery, they are
Annuloplasty – This helps to reinforce of tightening the ring located around the heart’s valve
Valvuloplasty – helps to broaden openings that have narrowed because of stiffness or thickening which may cause stenosis or fusing of the flaps.
Duration of the procedure – The Heart Valve Surgery generally lasts for 3-4 hours
Numbers of days for hospitalization – Generally patients are hospitalized for a week before they can be discharged.

Angioplasty with stent placement

Balloon Angioplasty

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or Balloon angioplasty of the coronary artery is a procedure that helps to relieve the arteries that have any kind of obstruction or narrowing which may cause problems in the flow of blood. With the help of this non-surgical procedure, the heart muscles are able to receive proper oxygen and blood that is needed for proper functioning. In order to accomplish the Percutaneous coronary intervention; the medical examiner inserts a small balloon catheter on the patient’s arm or groin. This procedure helps to stop or reduce the chances of a heart attack, relieves chest pain and helps in the improvement of the patient’s unstable angina
Duration of the procedure – The duration of Balloon Angioplasty can take vary from an hour or two to more depending on how many arteries are blocked and the condition of the arteries.
Number of days for hospitalization – After the procedure, the patient would have to stay back anywhere between 1 – 3 days.

ICD Acronym or abbreviation to implantable cardioverter defibrillator as device that monitors heart rhythm problems. Word ICD is around ECG paper strips, result of echocardiography and stethoscope

Pacemaker implantation

For patients with heart problems like very high heart rate AKA Tachy or Slow Heart Rate Aka Brady, the doctor may recommend implanting a pacemaker. This is a device that is placed on the chest’s upper portion to help correct the different types of Arrhythmias problems. This device helps to control the hearts beating and rhythm in a programmed manner. In the event, if the heartbeat is irregular, the pacemaker will help to regularize it.
Duration of the procedure – Depending on the type of device that is going to be implanted, the procedure can range from 1-3 hours
Numbers of days for hospitalization – After the PPI procedure, the patient will have to stay back in the hospital for 2-4 days.